Re: SUMO chunk for spatial stuff? (formula terms?)

From: Adam Pease (
Date: 04/21/03

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       The SUO-KIF spec is now a bit out of date with respect to SUMO 
    unfortunately.  It lacks higher-order statements and row variables, for 
    example.  For higher-order statements, it needs the modification that
         term ::= variable | word | string | funterm | number
         term ::= variable | word | string | funterm | number | sentence
    In practice, for inference, we quote many higher-order expressions, as 
    you've indicated in your last formula below.  Since this is simply a 
    syntactic sugaring though, and just an issue for implementation, we leave 
    the expressions unquoted in SUMO and run a preprocessor to add quoting in 
    our implementation.
    At 10:33 PM 4/21/2003 -0500, Dan Connolly wrote:
    >On Mon, 2003-04-21 at 17:12, Adam Pease wrote:
    > > Dan,
    > >    The modules are in KIF in our public CVS repository at
    > > <>.  Each
    > > module is separated from others in the file by the tags ";; BEGIN FILE" and
    > > ";; END FILE".  The DAML version of the latest SUMO is at
    > > <>, although it lacks the
    > > module delimiters.
    >Ah... ok, good.
    >Hmm... I hope this isn't too far off topic, but
    >in modelling places and times it seems to come up
    >quite a bit... I see this in the ontology:
    >(instance holdsDuring BinaryPredicate)
    >(instance holdsDuring AsymmetricRelation)
    >(domain holdsDuring 1 TimePosition)
    >(domain holdsDuring 2 Formula)
    >(documentation holdsDuring "(&%holdsDuring ?TIME ?FORMULA) means that the
    >proposition denoted by ?FORMULA is true in the time frame ?TIME.  Note
    >that this implies that ?FORMULA is true at every &%TimePoint which is a
    >&%temporalPart of ?TIME.")
    >    (and
    >       (holdsDuring ?TIME ?SITUATION1)
    >       (entails ?SITUATION1 ?SITUATION2))
    >    (holdsDuring ?TIME ?SITUATION2))
    >    (holdsDuring ?TIME (not ?SITUATION))
    >    (not (holdsDuring ?TIME ?SITUATION)))
    >But I can't make sense of "proposition denoted by ?FORMULA".
    >And I can't parse formulas like this...
    >    (believes ?AGENT ?FORMULA)
    >    (exists (?TIME)
    >       (holdsDuring ?TIME (considers ?AGENT ?FORMULA))))
    >That Merge.txt claims to be written in a language,
    >SUO-KIF, specified in
    >but from that spec it looks like (considers ?AGENT ?FORMULA)
    >parses as a functional term, not a term denoting
    >a proposition.
    >I ask partly to understand SUMO but also because
    >the N3 notation I'm working on with TimBL et. al.
    >(cf has a very
    >similar syntactic gizmo and I'm hard pressed to
    >figure out how to specify it, formally.
    >The only way I've been able to make sense of
    >it is via quasiquoting, ala...
    >    (believes ?AGENT ?FORMULA)
    >    (exists (?TIME)
    >       (holdsDuring ?TIME ^(considers ,?AGENT ,?FORMULA))))
    >Dan Connolly, W3C

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