Usage Scenario: Coalition Search & Rescue Policy Service

Author(s): Jeff Bradshaw, Andrzej Uszok, Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, Pensacola, FL;
                    Austin Tate, Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute, University of Edinburgh

URL(s) or other references:

Domain: Integration of policy services with service discovery, matchmaking and planning


This is an example of a service enabling coordination of operation using coalition resources, described using DAML-S, constrained by heterogeneous distributed set of policies.


Most organizations possess policies controlling their organizational procedures, access to information, use of resources, behavior of actors, obligations in relation to audit, logging, etc. These policies differ from organization to organization. When organizations create a coalition to perform common tasks it is necessary to distribute, coordinate and enforce these policies in the new virtual organization.

Stakeholders & Interests

An organization interested in preserving its policies within the scope of a coalition.

Coalition partners interested in being informed about constraints put on resources before planning.

Resource owners who want to control and protect the use of their resources.

Actors & Goals

Modification History

Use Case: Coordinating coalition search and rescue operation for the downed pilot


  1. Input: Task specification in agreed format
  2. Input: Process library in agreed format
  3. Input: Coalition resources described in agreed format and registered in matchmaker
  4. Input: Policies and structure of the coalition organizations
  5. Output: Plan result in agreed format



DAML-S service matchmaking

I-X (semi-)automated plan refinement and execution support

KAoS Policy and Domain Services


To plan and perform a search and rescue operation dynamically discovering coalition resources while at the same time assuring conformity to policies constraining visibility and use of these resources, as well as arbitrary actions of distributed clients, as dictated by the partners.


Inputs and Output formats agreed.


The rescue resources offered by the coalition partners are described using DAML-S and registered in Matchmaker:

When the US pilot is shot down the request to organize the search and rescue operations is forwarded to the Coalition SAR coordinator. It tries to obtain available rescue pick-up resources and synchronize them with medical facility to be used during the operation. Arabello policy forbids helicopters from Gao to land in Arabello. Thus, when a suitable hospital in Arabello is chosen by the SAR coordinator, the KAoS Policy and Domain Service is aware of this policy block of the Gao offer when it is returned by the matchmaker. It is important to note here that the matchmaker is a generic tool that should not be aware aware of the various policies defined by the distributed organizations. These policies are enforced at the boundaries of the coalition.


Other Use Cases will show richer planning scenarios and more complex set of policies, with reasoning to resolve issues of potentially conflicting policies.

Ontologies Needed

Ontology describing actors and policies - KAoS ontology

SONAT Elements of National Power (ENP) ontologies of countries, medical resources, military capabilities, etc.: ontologies Location Ontology

Ontology describing rescue resources - Rescue Resources ontology

Reasoning Techniques Required

Description logic reasoning for policy analyses and disclosure,

DAML relation reasoning to discover actor types

Domain relation reasoning to find peers, superiors and subordinates between actors.

Open Issues or Questions

An additional mechanism to implement is a functionality to return agents which will be authorized to perform this task based on the policies.
We also plan to work on better integration between DAML-S (OWL-S) description of services and KAoS policy service implementing automatic mapping functionality.
Policy negotiation mechanism between domains is also considered.